Pencil-sized robotic surgical instruments allow heart surgeons to perform operations through a centimeter-long hole in the patient's chest. Doctors insert robotic instruments through minute "ports" in the body. Instead of hovering over the operating table, surgeons sit at a console a few feet away, controlling the robo-scalpels with a pair of joysticklike grippers. Each tool has a patented EndoWrist mechanism that allows it to move with the dexterity and precision of the human hand. The whole ensemble was developed by the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, CA, a nonprofit R&D center created by Stanford University. The system was commercialized by Intuitive Surgical of Mountain View, Calif.From the book Robo sapiens: Evolution of a New Species, page 174.